Chthonian Theory in a Nutshell

Gas Giant

Earth is being born as a gas giant more than 4.6 billion years ago. The Sun is also being born as well as other planets and moons.

Chthonian Planet

Herbig-Haro objects produced by our borning Sun strip away the Earth's primordial outer shells. The objects also interact with primordial shells of other planets and moons.

Present Earth

Earth's primordial icy sarcophagus melts, oceanic lithosphere is being created. Earth is expanding and its overall density is decreasing. Earth becomes a habitable world.

Future Earth

Behavior of our planet is the focus of our research (rotation, earthquakes, crust condition). Geologically speaking, the expansion related adaptation of the continental crust is due to its rigidity leading to tremors registered on Earth as earthquakes, volcanism and other geological phenomena influencing our everyday lives.

Chthonian Theory

Chthonian Theory states that the Earth started its existence 4.6 billion years ago as a gas giant. The fusion ignition of the Sun stripped away the Earth's outer shells and thus it became a chthonian planet. Approximately 180 million years ago started its rapid expansion as a result of force balance between the cracked rigid mantle and previously highly compressed interior. The expansion led to a creation of the oceanic lithosphere and Earth's primordial heat loss. It is a competing theory to the theory of plate tectonics and thus e.g. rejects a process of subduction.

There exist a lot of issues that are solved by the Chthonian Theory. They can be divided into few groups.

Earth's Birth

Earth was born approximately 4.6 billion years ago as a gas giant according to the Chthonian Theory. Issues related to these early stages include the dynamics of protostellar jets and outflows and their effects on gas giant primordial shells uncovering, the origin of water on Earth as a primordial icy sarcophagus covering the continental crust, physics of ultracondensed matter and its presence in Earth's interior or conservation of primordial heat as well as the estimates of Earth's spin rates. 4.6 billion years old chondrites will also play an important role in understanding of the early stages since they map highly energetic processes connected with chthonian planets and moons creation.

Earth between 4.6 Billion Years - 180 Million Years

Earth was a dense and smaller planet 180 million years ago. As the solar luminosity increased with time, the Earth's icy sarcophagus started to melt so that Earth could expand. It was a inhabitable world. At this point, geology is divided into 2 basic eras: Pre-Expansion and Expansion Era. These two eras separate the inhabitable Earth with a roughly (events of expansion/deflation without creation of the oceanic lithosphere are also discussed) constant diameter (4.6 billion years - 180 million years) and the Earth that is gradually becoming habitable (180 million years - today). Here, the Earth is also becoming interesting for paleontology.

Earth between 180 Million Years - Today

The biggest question is about the expansion timing - Why did the rapid expansion begin 180 million years ago? We work with various scenarios - melting of the icy sarcophagus, tidal effects, Earth's internal heat release, meteorite impacts, etc. How did the Earth's interior relax over the period? Another questions are linked to the heat management, spin rate slowdown, 3D simulations of continental crust separation, Earth-Moon system behavior, geomagnetic field polarity changes, etc.

Earth Today

Earth is our home planet, we interact with the Earth every day. We search for oil, build highways or try to predict next volcanic eruptions or earthquakes. Earth's rotation modelling can give us valuable tools for that since the continental crust is adapting to the underlying spheres with slowly changing volume, which is leading to Earth's spin rates changes. We already measure the expansion as horizontal motions in max. few cm/year, the vertical measurements are sometimes still very challenging. One of the most important factors for a sustainable life on Earth is its geomagnetic field and its future behavior.

Future Earth

Do apples or humans evolve in a similar way as the Earth? What about other planets?


  • All
  • Geometrical Reconstructions
  • Topic 2
  • Topic 3
  • Topic 4

Our Team

Jan Mestan

Founder & Research Director


Research Scientist
Earth Radius [km]
Earth's Age [my]
Earth-Sun Distance [km]
Earth-Moon Distance [km]

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