Why is it hard to measure the Earth’s expansion?

Gravity Field Data

Let us assume that Earth expands globally at a rate of 4 cm/year. The acceleration due gravity on Earth’s surface can be calculated as follows:

We know the Earth’s mass and its radius. The value of acceleration for radius 6,378,000 m is:

9.79841872 m·s-2.

If we change the value of radius to 6,378,000.04 m, we get:

9.79841859 m·s-2.

The ESA’s GOCE Probe (2009-2013) was able to detect the variations of gravity at levels of 1 mgal, which is quite high accuracy, but not for the purpose of expansion measurement.

GOCE Probe.

Let us take the first value and mark the levels of GOCE’s accuracy:


The red color marks GOCE’s accuracy, the green color marks the field of changing gravity due to expansion.

The next problem is that the gravity field has many temporal variations (atmosphere, water redistribution, sand, soils), which is another negative (noisy) effect. Thus the accuracy with respect to expansion would be even worse.

Geodetic Data

Another technique is a GPS measurement via vertical changes. Have a look at the DTRF2014 image made by the Technical University of Munich:


We see there no data from the oceanic floor. The data from Canada or Greenland (the same with Norway) indicate a clear expansion.

The problem of such data is that the Earth’s surface is in a constant motion (centimeters to meters). Another problem is the number of stations – one cannot cover the whole surface. One would also expect that the expansion would be noticeable primarily on the oceanic floor.





I also recommend a paper from Wen-Bin Shen et al. (2011):


Although we don’t have suitable vertical data today, we have a lot of other tools like VGG maps or ocean floor ages that indicate the most probable scenario for Earth’s global dynamics – expansion.


Oblique Shape of Continental Block Boundary

One can easily notice that the shape of continental blocks is often oblique = not perpendicular to the surface. Have a look at the scheme:


As the Earth expands, the hot basalts are ‘pushed’ to the surface. And thus the blocks logically ‘wear out’ from the bottom, which is leading to typical oblique shapes at the block/oceanic lithosphere boundaries.

Subduction – Force Problems

Subduction is a process that makes physically no sense. Have a look at the P-wave tomography picture of a presumed subduction zone from Zhao, D. (2001) published in the journal Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors:

We see that the blue path strictly respects the oblique section of the continental block. The force of gravity is perpendicular to the surface. One would expect that if the subducting plate had sank down deep into the mantle thanks to gravity, it would have moved with respect to gravity. This is not the case.

For unknown reasons, the plate chooses the path that is adjacent to the continental block. The next thing is that such ‘choice’ results in overcoming the resistance force that is at the continental block/oceanic lithosphere boundary.

The better explanation for the observed relations in the picture would be a simple precipitation/solidification of basalt from the ‘basaltic bath’ at the boundary.

Tonga/Lau Region Experiment

Tonga/Lau Region Experiment

‘Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle. Regions where this process occurs are known as subduction zones.’ (Wikipedia)

These are the two first sentences from Wikipedia. But one can ask – Does subduction exist? Could the zones be just crustal zones of solidified basaltic material from depth at the oceanic/continental lithosphere boundary?

I decided to make a very simple experiment. I prepared a paraffin wax and created a wooden continental block. The block was inserted into the liquified wax.  The ‘oceanic crust’ was created in few minutes. But the most important part was the oblique section of the continental block. What will appear there?

The whole video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxKThYWc73Q

This is an image of a ‘subduction zone’ via P-wave tomography from Zhao, D. (2001) published in the journal Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors:

We see there a sharp contrast between the continental block(s) and oceanic crust (blue color). As been already mentioned, the image should visualize the so called subduction zones, which are presumed parts of Earth where oceanic lithosphere should slowly slide into the deeper parts of the mantle.

My experiment showed that the wax cooling led to a creation of a thin layer at the surface (air/wax boundary – max. 2 mm) as well as at the continental block/oceanic lithosphere boundary (wooden block/wax boundary – max. 1 mm).

The reason for the observed phenomenon is that the wooden block became colder than the inner parts of the wax container.  So the wax could solidify there. The fastest wax solidification was seen at the container glassy walls. If the block was made from another material like glass or granite, we would probably see even thicker layer at the wax/continental block boundary.

I think that the first experimental results represent a very good reason to think about the ‘subduction zones’ in a quite different way, maybe even easier way. I hope that more detailed experiments will follow.

Heat Generation Inside Chthonian Planets

The Earth’s interior is hot – the temperature of the core is roughly the same as the temperature of the solar surface, which is more than 5000 K!

The planets, esp. bigger planets = gas giants, are heated by a process called Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. It is known for planets Jupiter and Saturn. Bigger celestial bodies like our Sun radiate also via fusion processes. The chthonian planets keep the heat produced by the mechanism.

Gravitational potential energy of a chthonian planet can be calculated as follows:

One can simply count all the ‘potentials’ from the center of the planet towards the surface R – mass of concentric spheres times mass of concentric shells.

Scientists Kelvin and Helmholtz tried to explain the energy emitted by our Sun via the potential energy in the late 19th century. However, Arthur Eddington showed that the mechanism would allow the Sun to shine only for millions of years. Later, the fusion processes were described.

Thus the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism is rather interesting for generation of heat deep inside gas giant planets and derived chthonian planets.

Hydrostatic Pressure

One has to understand the hydrostatic pressure when dealing with the Earth’s expansion. The hydrostatic pressure p in the center of the Earth can be calculated as follows:

The R-value is approximately 6378 km today, g– and ρ-values can be found for example in the PREM model.

Radial Density Distribution.
Gravity Acceleration of Earth based on PREM.

We see that in order to compute the pressure, one must count all the products of acceleration due gravity and density towards the center of the Earth.

The today’s pressure in the center of Earth is approximately 360 GPa.

Creationism vs Conventional Paleontology

It is known that the Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. The oldest known rocks found in Canada/Australia are almost as old as this age.

Creationism teaches us that our ‘world’ is only thousands of years old and thus tries to find an evidence for ‘young Earth’. Here, creationism is wrong. Conventional paleontology accepts that Earth is 4.6 billion years old, but strictly connects the age of the Earth and the age of life on Earth (evolution based on magmatic petrology). And here, conventional paleontology could be wrong.

What if life on Earth is much more younger than the age of our planet?

Example of a Bad Scientific Paper

Re: Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary


Here I cite: ‘Mass extinctions manifest in Earth’s geologic record were turning points in biotic evolution. We present 40Ar/39Ar data that establish synchrony between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years. Perturbation of the atmospheric carbon cycle at the boundary likely lasted less than 5000 years, exhibiting a recovery time scale two to three orders of magnitude shorter than that of the major ocean basins. Low-diversity mammalian fauna in the western Williston Basin persisted for as little as 20,000 years after the impact. The Chicxulub impact likely triggered a state shift of ecosystems already under near-critical stress.’

When reading the abstract, one would await at least one photo linking the obtained data and the fossilized mammalian fauna in the strata. There are no photos and thus we can easily conclude that the 65/66 Ma events do not belong to the fossils. The fossils may be much more younger with their fossilization at the 65/66 Ma basements. Each scientific paper operating with dating of mass extinction events has to provide a clear link.

K-Pg Boundary

Have you ever asked why is there all around the world a thin ‘iridium layer’ inside shallow sedimentary layers? One would expect that this has to be from some meteorite hit, because meteorites often contain higher amounts of iridium.

The layers are exposed all over the world, but the thickest (richest) layers are found in the southern parts of the United States and Mexico. Scientists have been searching for a source of this layer for many years. Today, the prevailing idea is that it was caused by an asteroid that fell in the Yucatán Peninsula, at Chicxulub, Mexico 66 million years ago (Alvarez Hypothesis).

But… A careful person would ask first:

  • There were many and many meteorite hits between 66 Ma – today, why don’t we observe similar ‘iridium layers’ from these sources?
  • Wouldn’t that hit delivering an estimated energy of 10 billion Hiroshima A-bombs kill all living species (or at least all bigger species)?

If the iridium layer was the first one that you find in the shallow sedimentary sequence from above, you would try to find the youngest impact first. What about Meteor Crater in Arizona?

Here few dates:

  • Est. age: 50,000 years
  • Est. weight: 300,000 tonnes
  • Type: Iron meteorite (IAB-MG)
  • Biggest fragment weighing 1,409 lbs
  • Ir-content: 1.9 ppm
  • Crater diameter: 3,900 ft

66,000,000 vs 50,000 years is an extremely big gap, but have a look at the two mentioned questions again. Where is the 50,000 years old vaporized iridium-rich sedimentary layer from Canyon Diablo meteorite (Meteor Crater)?


Trilobites and Chthonian Planets

Chthonian planets may be very dense worlds. They can be twice as dense as pure iron. This means that the acceleration due gravity is quite high at their surface. It is known that ‘every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points’ (Wikipedia). The acceleration of today’s Earth is well known, the value is approximately:

9.8 m/s2

If we change the Earth’s radius to 5000 km, we get

15.9 m/s2,

which is 1.6 times more than today.

Although trilobites cannot be directly radiometrically dated, it is assumed that they are cambrian-permian ancient sea creatures (550-251 Ma). They can be found literally everywhere around the world – Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Canada, Brazil, United States. This means that all of these terrains were once flooded so that trilobites could exist.

If we work with Earth’s total primordial water (Earth’s icy sarcophagus) and expansion, one would expect that the smaller the planet, the more water on continental blocks when getting back into the past.

And that’s the problem. The rapid expansion started approximately 180 million years ago according to the data of the oceanic floor.

So we have got 2 options:

  • The trilobite ages are wrong.
  • The trilobite ages are right.

If they were wrong, then paleontology would have a problem. Actually, I am still waiting for a relevant answer here:


If they were right, then trilobites would live in a inhospitable environment with higher gravity values at the sarcophagus/crust interface, which is highly improbable.

The last option would be that the map of ocean floor ages is wrong and the ages are actually higher, which is also highly improbable.