K-Pg Boundary

Have you ever asked why is there all around the world a thin ‘iridium layer’ inside shallow sedimentary layers? One would expect that this has to be from some meteorite hit, because meteorites often contain higher amounts of iridium.

The layers are exposed all over the world, but the thickest (richest) layers are found in the southern parts of the United States and Mexico. Scientists have been searching for a source of this layer for many years. Today, the prevailing idea is that it was caused by an asteroid that fell in the Yucatán Peninsula, at Chicxulub, Mexico 66 million years ago (Alvarez Hypothesis).

But… A careful person would ask first:

  • There were many and many meteorite hits between 66 Ma – today, why don’t we observe similar ‘iridium layers’ from these sources?
  • Wouldn’t that hit delivering an estimated energy of 10 billion Hiroshima A-bombs kill all living species (or at least all bigger species)?

If the iridium layer was the first one that you find in the shallow sedimentary sequence from above, you would try to find the youngest impact first. What about Meteor Crater in Arizona?

Here few dates:

  • Est. age: 50,000 years
  • Est. weight: 300,000 tonnes
  • Type: Iron meteorite (IAB-MG)
  • Biggest fragment weighing 1,409 lbs
  • Ir-content: 1.9 ppm
  • Crater diameter: 3,900 ft

66,000,000 vs 50,000 years is an extremely big gap, but have a look at the two mentioned questions again. Where is the 50,000 years old vaporized iridium-rich sedimentary layer from Canyon Diablo meteorite (Meteor Crater)?

 

Trilobites and Chthonian Planets

Chthonian planets may be very dense worlds. They can be twice as dense as pure iron. This means that the acceleration due gravity is quite high at their surface. It is known that ‘every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points’ (Wikipedia). The acceleration of today’s Earth is well known, the value is approximately:

9.8 m/s2

If we change the Earth’s radius to 5000 km, we get

15.9 m/s2,

which is 1.6 times more than today.

Although trilobites cannot be directly radiometrically dated, it is assumed that they are cambrian-permian ancient sea creatures (550-251 Ma). They can be found literally everywhere around the world – Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Canada, Brazil, United States. This means that all of these terrains were once flooded so that trilobites could exist.

If we work with Earth’s total primordial water (Earth’s icy sarcophagus) and expansion, one would expect that the smaller the planet, the more water on continental blocks when getting back into the past.

And that’s the problem. The rapid expansion started approximately 180 million years ago according to the data of the oceanic floor.

So we have got 2 options:

  • The trilobite ages are wrong.
  • The trilobite ages are right.

If they were wrong, then paleontology would have a problem. Actually, I am still waiting for a relevant answer here:

https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_you_provide_any_real_well_supported_and_indisputable_evidence_for_trilobite_dinosaur_or_other_fossil_older_than_eg_1_Ma_recognized_ages

If they were right, then trilobites would live in a inhospitable environment with higher gravity values at the sarcophagus/crust interface, which is highly improbable.

The last option would be that the map of ocean floor ages is wrong and the ages are actually higher, which is also highly improbable.

Paleomagnetic Data from India Indicate Earth’s Expansion

Since the Earth’s expansion isn’t symmetric, one would expect latitudinal changes of continental blocks. The southern hemisphere contains a larger portion of oceanic lithosphere. The distance between India and Antarctica is quite big – Antarctica is located at the south pole whereas India is recently located on the northern hemisphere of the Earth.

The continental crust is adapting to the underlying spheres with slowly changing volume, which, due to the expansion asymmetry, led to a ‘move’ of India to the north. The ‘move’ was with fixed roots and thus India was always connected with Asia. There was no collision.

I already discussed the topic on Quora:

https://www.quora.com/How-would-you-explain-that-India-fits-Asia-perfectly-like-a-puzzle-according-to-the-plate-tectonics-theory-when-there-is-no-reason-for-it

One can also easily ask – Why did the Earth create a perfect and long ‘garage’ inside Eurasia? Eurasia was prepared perfectly so that India could fit it perfectly, is it just a huge coincidence? Does the nature of plate tectonics work as a perfect machine preparing perfect ports for distant continents over the tens of million years?

Here we can have a look at the ‘garage’ from the best map of the ocean floor we have ever had:

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/ng-interactive/2014/oct/03/the-most-detailed-map-of-the-ocean-floor-ever-seen

Some paleomagnetic data can be found for example in the paper from Wentao Huang et al. (2015) in Geophysical Research Letters:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL063749/pdf

This paper:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136791201200048X

suggests that India’s NE corner was at least at 50°S.

Earth as a Remnant of a Gas Giant: Herndon (2005) & Mocquet et al. (2014)

Herndon’s Nuclear Planet

J. Marvin Herndon came with an idea that Earth was a Jupiter-like planet in his speculative manuscript in 2005. He tries to unify the plate tectonics theory (with subduction without mantle convection) and the expanding Earth theory. He accepts the ‘conventional geological eras’ (life on Earth older than 180 Ma) and doesn’t explain why did the rapid expansion begin approximately 180 million years ago. His explanation for Earth’s heat and geomagnetic field is done via ‘georeactor’. Herndon doesn’t provide any geometrical fit of continental blocks in Pacific. You can read more on his webpage:

http://nuclearplanet.com/

Mocquet et al. – The First Steps in 2014

The first steps towards understanding of exoplanetary gas giant cores relaxation was made by the scientists Mocquet, Grasset and Sotin in 2014. Here I cite from their paper:

‘Data extracted from the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia (see http://exoplanet.eu) show the existence of planets that are more massive than iron cores that would have the same size. After meticulous verification of the data, we conclude that the mass of the smallest of these planets is actually not known. However, the three largest planets, Kepler52b, Kepler-52c and Kepler-57b, which are between 30 and 100 times the mass of the Earth, have indeed density larger than an iron planet of the same size. This observation triggers this study that investigates under which conditions these planets could represent the naked cores of gas giants that would have lost their atmospheres during their migration towards the star.’

The authors showed that exoplanets could relax when getting back to more ordinary densities. You can find their paper here:

http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/roypta/372/2014/20130164.full.pdf

Rajlich’s Hypothesis

I met Petr Rajlich, a Czech geologist from the South Bohemian Region, in 2010 during a geological student contest. He told me about his geological ideas that were sometimes really very different from the mainstream. For the first time, I heard about the possibility that Earth might be expanding or that most of the Czech Republic could be a relic of a meteorite hit (Czech Crater).

Petr has an interesting idea that not only a meteorite hit the region of Bohemia, but also influenced the rocks by a physical phenomenon of ultrasonic cavitation (Rajlich’s Hypothesis).

In 2010, I also published a paper together with Petr and Vaclav Benes. I found an interesting monazite sample in Pisek pegmatites with Vaclav and decided to discuss the topic with Petr. Finally, we produced a short paper:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306828184_Younger_postectonic_monazite_in_the_Pisek_pegmatite

The lamellae inside quartz that were for the first time described by Petr as ‘cavitation lamellae’ or ‘wavefronts’ are a subject of hot debates. There exist various versions of their origin:

  • Ultrasonic cavitation due to a meteorite hit,
  • zonal growths or
  • tensile fractures.

In 2014, I produced a short study together with a colleague from the Technical University in Munich Erwin Isaac Alvarez Polanco. I cite from Wikipedia: ‘It can be assumed that according to high number of wavefronts transferred through the minerals and resulting high number of cavity implosions, the structure of quartz was partially disrupted during the fluidization and the distribution of prevailing pressure was respected during the transfer into a solid state. There could be then preferred a creation of denser quartz in the area of higher pressure. This means a creation of smaller basic molecular Si-O rings. The situation in the area of lower pressure could be opposite. A finding of such harmonic signature of the quartz density is considered to be an option for the hypothesis verification.’ So we decided to make few simple models of quartz with periodic density distribution. And to propose few ways of its future probing. Here you can find our poster:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292331713_Density_Variations_in_Quartz_As_a_Key_for_Deciphering_Impact-Related_Ultrasonic_Sounding_Rajlich%27s_Hypothesis

My Appeal to Paleontologists and Evolutionary Biologists

As I am dealing with the chthonian theory, I decided to ask scientists whether they have an evidence for ‘conventional’ fossil ages they publish. It is a big surprise for me to find out that they probably haven’t. My question on ResearchGate reached already 300 reads and there is no relevant answer.

You can find it here:

https://www.researchgate.net/post/Can_you_provide_any_real_well_supported_and_indisputable_evidence_for_trilobite_dinosaur_or_other_fossil_older_than_eg_1_Ma_recognized_ages

I am still waiting for the answers. I thought that it will be easy to provide any evidence, but it seems that it is harder than expected.

Why do I actually ask? According to the chthonian theory, Earth had an icy sarcophagus and started to expand rapidly approximately 180 million years ago. The loads from the ice were rather unsuitable for living organisms to evolve or arise. The same with high gravity.

Public Lecture

My first public lecture about the connection between the continental edges of the northern Zealandia and western South America will be held on 20 December 2017 at the Charles University in Prague. I will talk about the basic relations of the Earth’s lithosphere, motions measurements and also Earth’s chthonian origin (icy sarcophagus, solar luminosity, other bodies). Everybody is welcome!

Where? Vinicna 5, Prague, Czech Republic

Time? 15:30-17:30